センター試験には良問が多いと言われています。問題が公表され、当然注目も集まりますので、その作成に多くの人が関わり何重にもチェックされます。そんな練りに練られた問題を、単に解いてそれで終わりではもったいない! そんなセンター試験過去問をどこよりも誰よりも詳しく徹底的に解説していきます。1つ1つ丁寧に確認し、真の実力(英語力)を身につけましょう。


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大学入試センター試験英語過去問題解説

2011年(平成23年)センター試験英語第6問「長文読解」問6


次の文章を読み、下の問いの(   )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、下の@〜Cのうちから一つ選べ。なお、文章の左にある(1)〜(6)は段落の番号を表している。

(1) Rats, mice, hamsters, and squirrels belong to a large group of animals called rodents. It is estimated that there are about 2,000 species of rodent, and they are believed to be one of the most successful group of animals we know. They are considered successful because the rodent group accounts for over 40% of all mammal species on earth. Of all the rodent the mouse-like rodents, such as those mentioned above, are probably the most successful, and it has been suggested that what makes them so is their teeth.
(2) Rodent' teeth enable them to eat a wide range of food, such as leaves, roots, nuts, and seeds. All rodents have four very sharp teeth at the front of their mouths−two at the top and two at the bottom. These teeth are called incisors, but unlike the incisors of most other mammals, they never stop growing. So whatever their age, rodents will always have fresh, sharp teeth to eat with. In addition, they also have extremely strong muscles around their mouths, which enables them to bite through the shells of nuts and seeds. Many other mammals and birds cannot do this, so the seeds they eat pass through their bodies undigested, and the nutrition within them is unused.
(3) Nuts and seeds are very nutritious. Some seeds, such as sunflower seed, sesame seeds, and peanuts, are very high in fat and protein. There are benefits of being able to eat these energy-rich foods: a lot of energy is gained in a short period of time; spending less time outside the home searching for food reduces the risk of being killed by other animals; and the time saved can be spent reproducing and looking after their young.
(4) Successful reproduction is essential to the survival of a species. However, it can be a double-edged sword. That is, it has good points and bad points. Many rats and mice are eaten by other animals before they die of natural causes, so being able to reproduce quickly is a good thing as it increases the species' chances of survival. For example, a Norwegian rat could have 56 children and over 400 grandchildren within 20 weeks of being born. On the other hand, if reproduction is too successful and there is a huge increase in population in a short time, then there will not be enough food available for all of them to survive. When this happens, thousands and thousands die, resulting in a population crash.
(5) The survivors often survive, not always by chance but because they are slightly different from the general population in some way. Perhaps they can run faster or further and so get to food before the other; or they have a better sense of smell and find food that others cannot; or they have stronger jaws and sharper teeth and can open nuts that others cannot open. Which of these slight advantages they have over those that die is not clearly understood; however, those that do survive have the opportunity to reproduce and pass on their advantageous traits to a new generation.
(6) So together with their high rates of reproduction and the survival of those that have adapted in some beneficial way, mouse-like rodents are in a strong position to survive well into the future. Ultimately, however, what probably enables these mouse-like rodents to reproduce so successfully is the fact that their teeth allow them to eat highly nutritious nuts and seeds so they do not have to spend most of their time engaged in the dangerous activity of gathering food.

問6
The contents covered in the passage are listed at random below.

(a) Sharp teeth and a powerful bite
(b) The likely explanation for survival
(c) Reproduction and population crashes
(d) A background to mouse-like rodents
(e) The advantages of high energy food
(f) Conclusion

Which of the following best reflects the flow of the passage? (   )

@ (b)→(a)→(c)→(d)→(e)→(f)
A (b)→(a)→(e)→(c)→(d)→(f)
B (d)→(a)→(c)→(b)→(e)→(f)
C (d)→(a)→(e)→(c)→(b)→(f)


【解説】
まず選択肢@~Cをを確認すると、全ての2番目に(a)、最後に(f)があることが分かります。
この時点で(a)と(f)の内容は読む必要がなく、
さらに本文の(2)段落、(6)段落も読まなくてよいことが分かります。

(b)〜(e)を見ていく中で
(c)の population crashes にアンテナが反応した人はなかなかのものです。
同じ語句が(4)段落の最後に出てきていますね。
ということで(c)は4番目・・・これで正解は選択肢AかCのどちらかに絞れました。

選択肢AとCを見てみると3番目に(e)が共通していますね。
ということは(3)段落と(e)を読む必要がなくなったのです。

残ったのは(b)と(d)です。これらがそれぞれ(1)段落と(5)段落のどちらに当てはまるか?
(b) The likely explanation for survival
(d) A background to mouse-like rodents

これは常識的に考えてもいけるかもしれませんね。
rodentsbackground が語られるのにふさわしいのは
(1)段落か? それとも(5)段落か? ・・・普通に考えると(1)段落ですよね。

ということで正解はCの(d)→(a)→(e)→(c)→(b)→(f) となります・・・が
これはかなり頭が冴えているときの解き方になるかと思います。
もう少し実用的なやり方としては、次のようなやり方もあるかと思います。

段落の最初の文と(a)〜(f)を照らし合わせてみるのです。
するとそれらの多くが対応していることに気付くでしょう。

(a)と(2)段落のteeth
(b)のsurvivalと(5)段落のsurvivorssurvive
(c)と(4)段落のReproduction
(e)のhigh energyと(3)段落のvery nutritious

2008年2009年2010年と続いてきた「段落のグループ分け問題」とは少し傾向が変わりましたが、それぞれの段落の最初の文を確認しながら解くというやり方は、この「論旨の並び替え問題」でも有効ということです。

【正解】C

センター試験英語過去問トライアル




第6問「長文読解」問5へ戻る
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