センター試験には良問が多いと言われています。問題が公表され、当然注目も集まりますので、その作成に多くの人が関わり何重にもチェックされます。そんな練りに練られた問題を、単に解いてそれで終わりではもったいない! そんなセンター試験過去問をどこよりも誰よりも詳しく徹底的に解説していきます。1つ1つ丁寧に確認し、真の実力(英語力)を身につけましょう。


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大学入試センター試験英語過去問題解説

2010年(平成22年)センター試験第6問「長文読解」問6


次の文章を読み、下の問の(   )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、下の@〜Cのうちから一つ選べ。

(1) Today, we believe that essential aspects of character are formed in childhood and adolescence. We understand the young have different needs and experience the word differently from adults. We can even see that adults themselves have been influenced by a modern emphasis on youth. However, historically this wasn't always so. The development of modern industrial societies has brought about a fundamental change in ideas about childhood and youth.
(2) As the historian Philippe Aries has pointed out, modern attitudes towards childhood and youth stand in contrast to views of the young in earlier periods. Aries has noted that many Europeans in the Middle Ages did not know when they were born or how old they actually were. The idea that one becomes an "adult" when one turns a certain age (for example, on one's twentieth birthday) did not exist. Thus, the difference between childhood and adulthood was not clear, and children were often treated in the same way as adults. In medieval France, few children went to school and six-year-olds worked in the fields alongside their elders. Aries even suggests that the concept of childhood itself did not exist in the Middle Ages.
(3) How did modern perceptions of childhood and youth develop? One important factor was the growth of trade and the rise of merchant cities, as happened in Renaissance Italy. The importance of providing the young with the skills necessary for trade was recognized by cites like Venice and Florence, which set up schools to teach reading, writing, and mathematics. As European nation-states emerged in the seventeenth century, the need for government officials - tax collectors, record keepers, and administrators - expanded. In France under Louis XIV, for example, increasing numbers of young people studied in the many academies created to meet this demand. The trend towards more education continued into the eighteenth century. By the late eighteenth century most children were going to school and spending more time apart from adults.
(4) The increasing number of students receiving education brought about another important change of attitude. Eighteenth-century thinkers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed children should be allowed to develop according to their individual abilities and not be overly disciplined. Followers of Rousseau, like Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, stressed the need for play if children were to grow into healthy adults. This emphasis on the needs of children led in turn to further changes. By the middle of the nineteenth century, industrial societies began passing laws to end child labor.
(5) A final factor has been the rise of "youth culture." The development of new technologies in the twentieth century meant a need for greater skills and rapid growth of secondary and higher education. By 1930, a majority of teenagers in America were enrolled in high school; by 1960, more than forty percent of American high school graduates were going on to university. As the time between childhood and adulthood became longer, psychologists emphasized the importance of "adolescence," a period when individuals are most open to the world and make crucial decisions about their futures. But as the young spent more time with their peers, youth developed a culture - music, fashion, even language - independent of adult society.
(6) Present-day ideas about childhood and youth have undoubtedly had an effect on adults. Movies, television, and music are increasingly aimed at the young and have influenced society as a whole. Many adults imitate the young. They were clothing - jeans and T-shirts - associated with youth, and try to keep their youthful looks.
(7) Adults have become like adolescents in another way. While technological change creates new products and jobs, this process also means that skills which adults have learned may become out of date, Adults can find themselves in the same position as adolescents: they must be ready to make decisions about their futures, learn new skills or start new jobs. Attitudes associated with adolescence, such as a willingness to explore new options, are increasingly common among adults.


問6
When paragraphs (1) through (7) are divided into four groups, which grouping is the most appropriate? (  )


- Group1 Group2 Group3 Group4
@ (1) (2)(3) (4)(5) (6)(7)
A (1) (2) (3)(4)(5) (6)(7)
B (1)(2) (3)(4) (5)(6) (7)
C (1)(2) (3)(4)(5) (6) (7)

【解説】
 これまで問題を解きながら本文を読んでいけば、それぞれの段落のつながりは大体分かるでしょう。やっているうちに、「あ! ここで話が変わったな」と思うことがあるはずです。そういう時はいったんこの段落わけ問題の選択肢に目を通し、消すことができる選択肢は消していくのが良いでしょう。
 そうしていくと、今年の問題で言えば問5を解き終わった瞬間(いや、それより前かも・・・)に、この問6の段落わけ問題も解き終わっていることでしょう。
 電話しながら料理をすることができる人であれば、そういうことも簡単にやってのけるのでしょうが、世の中そういう人ばかりではありません。なかなか2つのことを並行して行うことができない人もいるでしょう。私もその類で、例えば食事をするにしても、一つのおかずを食べ終わらないことには次のおかずに手をつけられないのです。(チョットちがうか・・・)まぁ、なかなかAの問題を解きながらBの問題も解くというのは苦手な人にとっては難しく、Aの問題を解くならそれに集中したいというのも良く分かる話です。

 ということで問1〜問5まで解き終わって、さぁ問6の段落わけとなったとき、また最初から読み直さなくてはいけないのか・・・と思っている人を救うために、今回はある方法で解いてみます。ただ、この方法はあくまで最後の手段です。本来は問1〜問5を解く際に本文を読みますが、その中で段落わけを考えるのが本筋であることを覚えておいてください。今からやるのはあくまでテクニック的なものであります。

前置きが長くなりましたが、それぞれの段落の最初辺の文をさらっと確認していきましょう。
すると気づいたことがありませんか?

(3)段落の One important factor / 一つの重要な要因
(4)段落の another important change / 別の重要な変化
(5)段落の A final factor / 最後の要因

この3つの段落・・・明らかに関係ありますね。ということは・・・
選択肢を確認すると・・・(3)(4)(5)段落がグループになっているのは、選択肢AとCしかありませんね。つまり@とBはここで消すことができるのです。


後は(1)(2)を分けるか、(6)(7)を分けるかのどちらかですが、
ここでいわゆる「論説文」というものの、文構成を考えてみましょう。
それは「序論→本論→結論」です。「問題提起→具体例→まとめ・主張」とも言えます。

それを踏まえて本文を見てみると、(2)段落では筆者の考えではなく、歴史家のPhilippe Ariesが出てきて、彼の考えが書かれています。またfor exampleという言葉も使われて具体的な話になっているのが分かりますね。つまり(2)段落は「具体例」の段落であり、「序論」ではなく「本論」の部分だということが分かります。すると当然(1)は「序論」ですので、(1)と(2)は分けられることになります。

ということで、正解は選択肢Aになります。


【正解】A

センター試験英語過去問トライアル




第6問「長文読解」問5へ戻る
大学入試センター試験英語解説トップへ

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